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  • Writer's pictureolivershearman

What in the Water?!: A Guide for Middle and High School Classrooms About the Phenomenal Physical Properties of Water

Water, a simple molecule consisting of two hydrogen atoms bonded to one oxygen atom, is the cornerstone of life on Earth. But what makes water so unique and vital? In this blog post, we will delve into the fascinating physics of water, exploring its phase changes, unusual properties like density variations, buoyancy, surface tension, high specific heat capacity, and even the triple point. Designed to be informative for both teachers and students, this exploration aims to ignite curiosity and deepen understanding of water's crucial role in our world.


For a short and sweet teaching resource on this very topic, you can find a Google suite article here or a Offline article here.



Water can exist in three states: solid (ice), liquid (water), and gas (steam or vapor). These transitions aren't just fascinating—they're a part of everyday life, from boiling water for tea to ice forming on a chilly winter day.


- Melting and Freezing: At 0°C (32°F), water transitions between solid and liquid forms. Adding heat melts ice, while removing heat freezes liquid water.

- Evaporation and Condensation: Water evaporates into vapor at any temperature but boils at 100°C (212°F). Cooling vapor leads to condensation, like the droplets on a cold soda can.

- Sublimation and Deposition: Water can also change directly from ice to vapor without becoming liquid—a process called sublimation, seen with dry ice.


Most substances are denser as solids than liquids, but water is an exception. Ice floats because it's about 9% less dense than liquid water. This occurs because water molecules form a crystalline structure held by hydrogen bonds, creating more space between molecules than in liquid form. This property ensures that aquatic life can survive under ice-covered waters in winter, as the ice forms an insulating barrier on the water’s surface.


- Buoyancy: This force, explained by Archimedes' principle, states that an object in a fluid is pushed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces. Water's buoyancy supports everything from swimming fish to floating boats.

- Surface Tension: Water molecules at the surface are attracted more strongly to those below than to the air above, creating a 'skin' on water's surface. This tension allows insects to skitter across ponds and droplets to form beads on surfaces.


Water can absorb a lot of heat before it gets hot. This high specific heat capacity is crucial for moderating Earth's climate and helps in everyday technology like car radiators and heating systems. It also makes water an excellent habitat, as the temperature of bodies of water remains relatively stable, protecting aquatic life.


The triple point of water is a specific condition of temperature and pressure where water can exist simultaneously as solid, liquid, and gas. This occurs at about 0.01°C and 0.006 atmospheres of pressure. Understanding the triple point helps scientists study the behavior of materials under different conditions and is essential for calibrating thermometers.


Each property of water not only supports life but also influences our weather, climate, and daily activities. By understanding these characteristics, students can appreciate the deeper implications of simple phenomena, like why sweating cools us down or why ice storms are so dangerous.


To bring these concepts to life, consider incorporating simple experiments such as:

- Freezing water in different shaped containers to observe how it expands.

- Comparing saltwater and freshwater ice to understand how salt affects freezing point and density.

- Measuring temperature changes in different liquids to illustrate specific heat capacity.

- Creating water droplets on wax paper to explore surface tension.


By exploring water’s unique properties, students not only learn fundamental science concepts but also develop an appreciation for this vital substance's role in our world. Whether it’s through experiments, discussions, or hands-on activities, the magic of water is a wonderful gateway into the world of physical science.


Thanks for reading

Cheers and stay curious

Oliver - The Teaching Astrophysicist

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